New Hampshire Genealogist & New England Genealogist
 
The following sketches are mostly taken from The Life & Family of John Bean of Exeter and his Cousins by Bernie Bean, 1970 and The Proceedings of John Bean (1660) Association at its (4th) Annual Reunion at Portland, ME August 31 1899 & the genealogy compiled within it by Josiah Drummond. The dates are exactly as they appear in Bernie Bean’s The Life & Family book. Unless otherwise specified, I have not seen the record & am unclear what calendar the dates were recorded under, therefore I do not want to assume January was the first month of the year.

John MacBean & Margaret 
   John Bean was born John MacBean bef 1634 in Strathdearn, Inverness-Shire, Scotland. Bernie Bean states that the authority of this place is Ida Mable Williams King author of 1935 Bean Genealogy, descendants of Samuel (5) of Glover, VT. His age, according to Bernie Bean (via Josiah Drummond) confirms there is an existing affidavit from 1694 in which John states he was “sixty years of age or more”. John MacBean is said to be the son of Donald MacBean, grandson of Aaron MacBean, (likely pronounced McBayne)  b. 1570, Inverness Shire, Scotland). They were proud members of the Clan MacBean which had lived in that part of Scotland since the late 1200’s when the Clan migrated from the east of Scotland. I don’t know about you but I suddenly have an urge to watch Braveheart….but I digress. It is said Donald & Aaron were farmers, leather makers and builders, but this tradition seems to have been an assumption based on John’s chosen professions in America.
   John m. (1) Hannah Lissen, on 4-18-1654 in Exeter. She was born in Scotland about 1635, the daughter of Nicholas and Alice Lissen. She died in 1659 in Exeter after the childbirth of her third child.
   John m. (2) Margaret ___? before 11-15-1660 in Exeter, Rockingham Co., New Hampshire. She was born about 1640 in Scotland. She died 1714 in Exeter. She was the mother of his last 9 children.
    He died between 1-24-1718 & 2-8-1718 at Exeter, NH and he along with Margaret and his first wife Hannah are buried in the Congregational Church Grave yard in Exeter, known as the Old Meetinghouse. A marker was placed over the graves in 1972. They were members of the congregation tho John remain Presbyterian till the day of his death. There was no Presbyterian church in Exeter, and there is none even now, so they went to the Congregational Church.
    John was one of 272 Scottish Prisoners of War from the Battle of Worcester, labeled “ruffians” & “troublemakers” who were exiled from Scotland & arrived in Boston on February 24-1652 aboard the “The Sarah and John”. They were intended to be sold as indentured workers to pay for the cost of their transportation unless they could pay. John Bean, along with most others it seems, could not afford to pay for his passage & was in fact sold to the highest bidder. No doubt resentful about his deportation by England after they won the Scottish rule, John did not take the Oath of Allegiance to England until 1677, after King Charles & Oliver Cromwell were dead. .  It seems it was on this ship that the “Mac” on many names was left off by the clerk. John kept it that way.
    Of these 272 men on the ship, it seems John Bean was friends with Henry Magoon & Alexander Gordon. Having arrived in this land with no kin, it seems they formed a bond that made them family for the rest of their lives. Bernie Bean found evidence that places John Bean working in the mills of Exeter for his future father-in-law Nathaniel Lissen. He states that the lists of Stackpole it states 7 of the 272 prisoners were sold to work in the saw mills on the Exeter & Oyster Rivers. Nathaniel Lissen owned those mills. The six other men who served Lissen were: John Barber, Alexander Gordon, John Sinclair, John Hudson, John Thompson and Walter Jackson. Henry Magoon is said to have served his indenture-ship in southern Maine.
    Nathaniel & Alice Lissen (who were not my ancestors) were both born in Scotland came to America in 1637 with their three daughters Elizabeth, Mary & Hannah. John of course married Hannah, Elizabeth married Henry Magoon & Mary married Alexander Gordon.
    John is said to have been a most ambitious man. He became part owner of the mills with his father-in-law. He farmed & was a tanner, manufacturing moccasins for Indians & boots for the settlers, and he was a real estate speculator & developer. It is said he was the first to buy land from the Natives north of Lake Winnepesaukee, but this cannot be proven. Prior to his death John did become a land owners of about 20 farms.
     Bernie Bean seems to have done a thorough job proving various traditions & misinterpretations of records. One should definitely refer to his work if there is any doubt about information that has been retold or found elsewhere.
                                 Children by Hannah Lissen:
1. Mary Bean b. 6-8-1655 (Jun 18 1655 HoE 66), Exeter married 6-25-1674 Joel Judkins. They
    were gr gr grandparents of Daniel Webster [dau. Hannah m. Ebenezer Webster]
2. Henry Bean b.1657; d. 3-5-1662 (Mar 5 1662 HoE 66), Exeter , NH
3. Hannah Bean b.1659 Exeter, NH; d.7-18-1692, Kingston NH m: Abraham Whittacre. 
    Hannah had 5 children, all of whom were massacred by Indians on their farm in Kingston)
                                               Children by Margaret:
4. John Bean b.8-15-1661 (Aug 15 1661 HoE 4); d. 5-18-1666, Exeter
5. Daniel Bean b.3-23-1663 (Mar 23 1662-3 HoE 4); m. 1684? Mary Fifield
6. Samuel Bean b.5-23-1665 (Mar 23 1665-6 HoE 4); m. Mary Severance
7. John Bean b.10-13-1668 (Oct 13 1668 HoE 4); m.1700? Sarah Wadleigh
8. Margaret Bean b.10-17-1670 (Oct 27 1670 HoE 4); m. William Taylor
9. James Bean b.12-17-1672 (Dec 17 1672 HoE 4)  
10. Jeremiah "Jeremy" Bean b.4-20-1675 (Apr 20 1675 HoE 4); m. Ruth Johnson see previous
11. Elizabeth Bean b.9-24-1678 (Sept 24 1678 HoE 4); m. John Sinclair
12. Catherine Bean b.1680; m. Richard Dolloff
 
Hannah Lissen had two sisters, Elizabeth who m. Henry Magoon and Mary who m: Alexander Gordon. Abraham Whitacre was the son of Abraham and Elizabeth (Simonds) Whitacre. Elizabeth Simonds was the dau of William.

More notes on John Bean
First appears in town records according to HoE on Jan 21 1660-1 granted 10 acres w/ "Nicholas Listen" Oct 10 1664 30 acres HoE; Apr 3 1671 6acres; Feb 3 1698 100 acres; 

Burial: Church Yard of the Congregational Church, Exeter, Rockingham Co., New Hampshire
Christening: Fallis, Dayiot Parish, Scotland

Bet. 1680 - 1690, He signed the famous New Hampshire petition .
1671, He was one of a committee chosen to run the lines between Exeter and adjoining towns.
Comment 3: November 30, 1677, Took the oath of allegiance.
Comment 4: January 24, 1717/18, John d. between 1-24-1718 and 2-8-1718
Elected: 1680, Pound Keeper of Exeter, NH
Military service: February 24, 1651/52, Scotish Prisoner of War; Battle of Worcester
Abt. 1660, Grantee of Land in town of Exeter, NH
July 22, 1664, Conveyed to him on this date a house lot of twenty acres, and ther lots in Exeter containing ten, five and twenty-six acres by John Fed, of Exeter, NH
Bet. 1664 - 1708, Other Land Grants made to him; 10-10-1664, 4-1-1671, and 2-21-1708.

According to the Genealogical & Family History of the State of Maine compiled by George Thomas Little, A. M. , Litt. D. page 439
"Margaret Bean joined Hampton Church in 1671, and good wife Bean was among those who were dismissed from that church in 1698, "in order to their being incorporated unto a church state in Exeter." Margaret Bean was one of those who organized the church in Exeter, September 2, 1698; she was a member in 1705, which was the last mention of her. She died before 1718."
     

 
 
The following sketches are mostly taken from The Life & Family of John Bean of Exeter and his Cousins by Bernie Bean, 1970 and The Proceedings of John Bean (1660) Association at its (4th) Annual Reunion at Portland, ME August 31 1899 & the genealogy compiled within it by Josiah Drummond. The dates are exactly as they appear in Bernie Bean’s The Life & Family book. Unless otherwise specified, I have not seen the record & am unclear what calendar the dates were recorded under, therefore I do not want to assume January was the first month of the year.

Jeremiah Bean was b. 4-20-1675 Exeter, NH d. 1727, Exeter, m. 1708?, Hampton Falls, NH, Ruth Johnson, b. 1-1-1675, Hampton Falls, d. (before) 12-27-1758, Exeter, NH, the daughter of Matthew Johnson & Rebecca Wiswall.

Jeremiah served in the Indian wars between 1695 and 1710 under Capt Gilman. He was a Scout as was his brother James. He was a farmer and a blacksmith. His home in Exeter was located where the jail was later built. There are perhaps a dozen wills, deeds and other conveyances of property by the hand of Jeremiah and Ruth from which we gather much information about them. However, none of these provided the proper order of the birth of their children nor the birthdates, only that James was the oldest. The date of Ruth’s death was before that given here because that was the date when her will was executed. Jeremiah, from all we can learn of him appears to have been a quiet sort of person, going about his own business, & taking things pretty much as they came. He and Ruth were of Presbyterian background and members of the Hampton Church until his mother moved her membership to the new church in Exeter. They had 9ch., all b. in Exeter.
                                   Children of Jeremiah & Ruth:
1. James Bean b. 1708 m: 1st Ruth Sanborn m: 2nd Lydia Hoag There are 14 children between
    the 2 wives listed in the book.
2. Margaret Bean m: Jonathan Glidden of Epping - family has not been found
3. Elizabeth Bean - m: Joseph Norris
4. Deborah Bean m: James Dudley son of James & Mercy (Folsom) Dudley, born in Exeter
     a1715 and he died in May 1761 and she in Andover in 1810 -It is unclear of she is really a 
     child of this couple or not.
5. Jeremiah "Jeremy" Bean b. 1720  m: Abigail Prescott
6. Richard Bean - d. 6- - 1749, Exeter. He was a blacksmith. He died unmarried about 1750,
    Jeremy admin his estate.
7. Tabitha Bean m: Daniel Elkins of Kingston
8. Hannah Bean - m: John Elkins of Kingston. These two boys were brothers and the sons of
    Moses and Ann (Shaw) Elkins of Kingston, NH
9. John Bean b. 

 
 
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Okay....so this kind of explains why my blog is on hiatus :)
I have never been happier! But I'm also pretty busy...I'll be back, but it will be as Amylynne (Baker) Murphy! 

Amylynne Baker-Santagate, daughter of Mrs. Marion (Stevenson) Baker and the late Mr. Arthur L. Baker Jr., is to be married to Romeyn Todd Murphy, son of Mrs. Susan (Santoro) DeRoche, wife of John DeRoche of Florida, and the late Mr. Romeyn D. Murphy. The couple met as teenagers in Windham, and nearly 30 years later found an extraordinary bond. Amylynne is the Administrative Assistant for the Windham Independent News, as well as a professional genealogist. Romeyn, who is employed by Bob’s Discount Furniture, recently relocated from the Distribution Center in Taftsville, CT to the Manchester, NH store. Their combined family includes Brandy C. Mulhare, 25, Alexander D. Murphy, 21, both of Connecticut, Shealyn E. Santagate, 19, of Weirs Beach, NH & Jaquelyn M. Santagate, 16, of Hampstead, NH.  A small family wedding is planned for May 10 2015. They reside in Hampstead, NH.

 
 
Big changes going on around here & busy, busy, busy....I'll be back not sure when yet :)
 
 
Time for family! We will be on a break for the holidays through Jan 10th 2015. See you then!
 
 
"Don’t just sit there like a bump on a log"

 
 
The following sketches are largely taken from The Life & Family of John Bean of Exeter and his Cousins by Bernie Bean, 1970 and The Proceedings of John Bean (1660) Association at its (4th) Annual Reunion at Portland, ME August 31 1899 & the genealogy compiled within it by Josiah Drummond. The dates are exactly as they appear in Bernie Bean’s The Life & Family book, unless otherwise specified, I have not seen the original vital records & am unclear what calendar the dates were recorded under, therefore I do not want to assume January was the first month of the year. The probate notes are from the file I have seen myself.
   Jeremiah Bean b. 1720, Exeter, NH, died between Jan 24 1808-Feb 3 1808, Brentwood, NH, married Jun 15 1749, Hampton Falls, NH, Abigail Prescott, b. _____, d. after Jan 24 1808, possibly the dau of Benjamin & Elizabeth (Coffin) Prescott. 
   Jeremy is said to have been born in the Bean home in Exeter, NH which is said to have been located where the old jail used to be. The house was later used as a counting house by The Old Exeter Mfg. Co. In 1760 Jeremy moved to his farm in the southwest corner of Brentwood & there lived until he died. In 1794, a mill which had been part of The Gilman Estate, plus 5 acres of land lying on the other side of the river, was deeded by Jeremy to his son Richard. It was located at what was known as “Coppy Hole”. Jeremy bought one quarter interest in this mill (Known as Copy Hold Saw Mill), plus 721/2 acres, in 1772 from Tristram Gilman Esq. Estate, who d. in 1741. He paid 116 pounds, 5 shillings for it.
     Having seen the original Rockingham County Probate file # 7887 for Jeremiah Bean of Brentwood at the NH State Archives, it is described as the following. It specifically mentions his "beloved wife Abigail", his sons Richard, Jeremie and Asa, his dau, Molly (wife of Joel Bean), Ruth (wife of Benjamin Page), and Gr. Ch. Obadiah, Levi, Hannah (wife of James Hoit), Jeremiah, Ai, and Stephen, "children of my son Levi Bean,” and Gr. Ch. Jonathan, Nabby “wife of Jonathan Bachelder,” Benjamin and Lydia, "children of my son Benjamin Bean, deceased". Jeremiah Bean, son, Executor, to maintain Abigail during her natural life, date Jan 24 1808. Jeremiah Bean of Hawke was bonded as Executor Feb 3 1808. (I will transcribe the file at a later date, but in the meantime if you would like photos of the documents, email me.)
    All previous records of the births of his children have been somewhat mixed up and even Josiah Drummond admitted in a letter and his speech at the 1896 Bean Reunion that his records were not satisfactory. Though even now they are not complete, we have made progress since in determining the correct order of birth of this family. Because Jeremy bought the farm in southwest Brentwood in 1772, some have thought he lived in Exeter until then, however he did move from Exeter in 1760 for his son Benjamin was born in Brentwood; at what farm or location we do not know. The last two children listed are not in the proper order of birth. They died in infancy or childhood and no dates are available. One old family record shows them born in Brentwood but this is doubtful. They had 9 children. From “The Book of Dow” and “The Hoyt Family” we have dates for the birth of both Levi and his wife, Patience. Both dates are obviously in error but we quote them here with no question mark. Jeremy was a Quaker.
     The informant of this section in the Proceedings of John Bean book is a Mr. Blaisdell - there is a lot of information about where they lived. He states this Jeremy was brought up & raised in Exeter then moved to southern part of Brentwood about 1760. This Jeremiah was evidently called "third" even though he was not actually a III, but within the whole scope of the family he was. The other Jeremiah in Brentwood, son of James, lived in the northern part of Brentwood about 4 miles from where this Jeremiah lived.
                     Children of Jeremiah Bean & Abigail Prescott: pg 149 see for more
1. Richard Bean b: 7-25-1750, Exeter & Brentwood, Trader, alive in 1804 m: Mary Gove b. Dec 19 1754 (Book of Dow) daughter of Obadiah Gove & May Dow on Apr 17 1776Book of Dow & Gove Family). He died ????? She died in Brentwood, NH July 5 1839 (Gove Family pg 74)
              Children of Richard Bean & Mary Gove (10 children per Book of Dow): 
         i. Richard Bean Jr. m: Nancy (Shaw) on Feb 6 1801 (NHVR) They lived in Brentwood
           and can be found on several deeds in Rockingham County. One of which is to Obadiah
           Bean Jun 15 1811 #197-110 in which Richard Jr sells him a place he had built to make
           nails. Both "Richard Bean Jr of Brentwood" & Nancy his wife, can be found signed on
           RC Deed# 203-381. Nancy was murdered by Richard Jr Feb 14 1841 in Brentwood, 
           NH See this blog
                           Richard & Nancy had at least 4 daughters:
                     a. Hannah M. Bean b. 1807 in Brentwood, NH m: Jeremiah Richards d. Oct 17
                        1906 in Boston, Massachusetts
                     b. Clara A. Bean b. 1809 in Brentwood, NH  m: John D. Snell & d. Aug 25
                        1895 in Boston, Massachusetts.
                     c. Sophia F. Bean b. 1818 in Brentwood, NH m: Joel M. Thurston d. Apr 20
                        1904 in Lowell, Massachusetts
                     d. Eliza S. Bean m. Davis died in Amesbury, MA
        ii.  Mary  Bean m: Mark Prescott 
       iii.  Betsy  Bean m: Jonathan Smith 
       iv.  Ruth  Bean m. -----Roe 
       v.   Ira  Bean died suddenly of heart disease
      vi.   Hannah  Bean m: Gideon Davis of Warren 
     vii.   Lois  Bean m: John Blaisdell of Gilford 
     viii.   Enos  Bean m. ------ Dudley 
      ix.   Eunice  Bean m: Joseph Young and removed to Salem, MA 
       x.   Levi  Bean never married, d. a 1839-40?
      xi.   Sophia  Bean m: ---Fogg of Enfield
2. Levi Bean b: 9-3-1753 d: 1804-1806 m: Patience Gove daughter of Obadiah Gove & May Dow (Gove Family pg 74) See previous
3. Jeremiah "Jeramie" Bean  b: 2-13-1754, Exeter       alive 1808
4. Asa Bean b:  ?,  Exeter        alive in 1808
5. Molly/Mary Bean   b: 11-3-1756, Exeter m Joel Bean She is married by 1808
6. Benjamin Bean   b. 1760, Brentwood d: before 1808. Children:
      i.  Jonathan Bean
     ii.  Nabby Bean m: Jonathan Bachelder
    iii.  Benjamin Bean
    iv.  Lydia Bean
7. Ruth Bean    b: 11-12-1767, Brentwood (1769)  Lived in Gilford m: Benjamin Page son of Moses & Judith (French) Page born Feb 2, 1763; he died June 6, 1836, and she Feb 3, 1859 a91,2m,21d. Children:                    
     i. Ruth Page b Nov 12, 1794
    ii. Benjamin Page b; Sept 26, 1798
8. James Bean   b:  ?  d: young, Brentwood
9. Betsey Bean   b:  ?  d: young, Brentwood

 
 
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Hattie Rich Studio: Manderville, Lowville, NY
Week 6 of Friday's Find!   This photo was found in Jewett City, Connecticut

If in one of these Friday's Find blog posts you find your relative, please contact me. I will either give you the item if I have it, or refer you to the person that does have the item to work it out between the two of you (at no profit to me).

1900 - Hattie Rich is on Steward St in Lowville, NY with her parents:

William Rich Head b. Apr 1844 Architect & Builder 
                   b. New York f. New Hampshire m. New Hampshire
Helen Rich Wife b. Sept 1850  All others New York
Harry Rich Son b. Jul 1876
Lillian Rich Daughter-in-law b. Jan 1876
Mabel I Rich Daughter b. Sep 1878
Hattie L. Rich Daughter b. Mar 1881
Henry C. Rich Son b. Dec 1884
George W. Rich Son b. Dec 1889

 
 
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About 9 years ago while obtaining my minor in English, I wrote an essay about this remarkable woman and her depiction of nature & spirit within her work. In honor of her birthday, I thought I'd share it.
                             -Amylynne Baker-Santagate

Emily Dickinson's "Master" and Creator of Nature
Amylynne Baker-Santagate
Nature Writers - LIT332
Professor Marc Schiffman
25 February 2005

     Emily Dickinson is most often described as a mysterious eccentric recluse dressed in white having physically withdrawn from society to her parents 14 acre estate (Farr 2) between the ages of 23 (Jalic) and 44 (Virtual Emily) with many sources noting somewhere in between. Often they agree she spent her time, writing poetry & letters, baking, and tending to the family conservatory as well as likely caring for her ailing parents with her sister Lavina. (Virtual Emily) She did not publish any poems with her name attached to them in her lifetime of work which included up to 2000 poems, sources vary on exact numbers. It is likely she or family and friends had published 7-12 poems while she was alive anonymously. (Begibing 405) (Myers) It is evident she continually maintained communication with family and friends through letters. (Virtual Emily)  She left over 1000 letters behind a likely small percentage of those she sent. (Hurrelbrinck) Some may have been destroyed by her sister Lavina (“Vinnie” Farr 339) after her death, if so, it was likely at Emily’s request. (Mondragon)  Adding to her mystery is that only rare depictions of her exist, all of which are included on this cover, the last of which is newly discovered. (Gura)
     As an artist she expresses confusion, despair and an undying quest for love and answers to the most compelling philosophical questions of all, including God and Jesus. (Hurrelbrinck) She is quoted as saying “In a life that had stopped guessing, you and I should not feel at home.” (Hurrelbrinck) And “It is true that the unknown is the largest need of the intellect, though for it, no one thinks to thank God.” (Hurrelbrinck)
       There is too much to Dickinson’s life, works and ideals or sorrows than can be encapsulated here in any of the honor or respect she so completely deserves. However, within her work and letters there is a small glimpse that will be recognized here and that is her spiritual connection to God and nature symbolism. As well, a connection will be illustrated between her self-representation as a daisy to God or Jesus and the “Master” letters. I believe she is His daisy in a world she symbolizes entirely through nature.
     I find it hard to believe others have not come to that specific conclusion before me, in fact, I find it impossible, and yet, to my knowledge I have not found a specific source of confirmation in my research for this paper. Under no circumstances do I deem that I stand alone in these understandings, nor that by any stretch am I the first to see them within her work.
     Many theories and speculations surround Emily in a quest to understand her. Evidently insinuating she was romantically involved with women (Farr 58) or married men by sources too numerous to list, labeling her neurotic, (Mondragon) or having an anxiety disorder. (Mondragon) They’ve even said she hid her face from the neighborhood children as she passed baskets of cookies she baked for them from her second floor window, (Mondragon) but she is quoted as having said once to the children as she raided the pantry with them and hid from the maid, Maggie, “You know, dears, if the butcher boy should come now, I would jump in the flour barrel”. (Virtual Emily) It is also said she joined in the children’s games and we should note, she was an Aunt to at least some of the neighborhood children. (Virtual Emily) Sources often contradict one another in the life of Emily.
     Clearly though, she had some eccentric tendencies, likely emotional trauma, heartbreak and pivotal turning points. She was easily misunderstood and often even so deep in feeling and thinking processes, she is exhausting yet, she is simple in her quest. She, herself, appears as an intriguing and fascinating paradox of emotions mostly because she wrote down in poetry and letters what some just think and hide. Her journey is not known and I do not to pretend to know what led her down the path of pain, but somehow, I almost understand that she is just misunderstood, exaggerated and documented sometimes totally incorrectly. I find I see her more through her own quote from “What Mystery Pervades a Well”
To pity those who know her not
Is helped by the regret,
That those who know her, know her less,
The nearer her they get (Begibing 412)
     She often wrote in riddles (Mondragon) or almost in code to those who knew her either to send secret messages or to perhaps initiate their thinking, so it is no surprise she would like the symbolism of flowers and nature during the era in which she lived or that speculations of her intent, sanity and romances would be made, but it is important to remember she lived in a time of Victorian religious perceptions, romanticism, idealism and symbolism.
    She was a woman who loved nature as a whole and especially the flowers and scents that radiated from them. (Farr 109) Therefore she combined her work in one small aspect with the Victorian era of flowers and symbolism, possibly speaking her heart through them as Thomas Hood has written “Sweet flowers alone can say, what passion fears revealing,” (Visioneer) but it is likely she used them in other writings, not related to romance at all.
     The language of flowers, Florigraphy, predates Victorian times, but in 1818 Mme. Charlotte de la Tour in Paris wrote the Original Dictionary. ”It was an overnight sensation.” (Hoppe) Many dictionaries would follow in the 1800’s. (Farr 69; Hoppe) Women and men alike became fond of expressing with flowers what they could not say with words. (Hoppe) Sentiments could easily be expressed by flowers and combinations often changed the meaning entirely. (Hoppe) Flowers became Dickinson’s messengers in her life. (Farr 3) She would very often present or send flowers to people with a verse or letter to express her care for them. (Farr 3) These flowers which she grew in her conservatory were one of the largest parts of her life. (Farr 3) She would also repeatedly connect certain people with particular flowers; she did not exclude herself. (Farr 13-74)
     Dickinson appears to directly symbolize certain flowers with the people most cherished in her life including Jasmine (amiability) (Victorian Bazaar) with Samuel Bowles, (Farr 42-49) Crown Imperial (conceit) with Susan Dickinson(Farr 50-52), heliotrope (devotion) with Judge Otis Lord (Farr 59-60) and apple blossoms (preference & good fortune) or chrysanthemums (cheerfulness) with her sister Lavina. (Farr 50) She often refers to herself openly with friends and family as a Day Lily, (coquetry), meaning very flirtatious. (Farr 69-70) Many reasons and letters explain her connections, either in gifts she gave or received or some more of a personal nature, the list appears endless. In addition, meanings could vary between botanical resources and dictionaries. (Hoppe) (Farr 69)
     None of the connections made by Farr are as compelling as Dickinson’s comparison of herself to God as a Daisy, in my opinion.  I believe she also refers to other individuals to Him as daisies and it is displayed in her poems, “So A Daisy Has Vanished” and “The Daisy Follows The Soft Sun”.
     Much speculation has surrounded her 3, perhaps 4, letters addressed to “Master” or Unknown. Is it Wadsworth, Bowles, Higginson, Lord or even Susan her sister-in-law? (Farr 58) Many wonder. It seems so obvious; it is to Jesus that she speaks most of all. Perhaps adding to this speculation of love by others is the childhood ritual of “He loves me, he loves me not” (Language and Symbolism of Flowers) in connection with a daisy, but to this I say it fits perfect with her religious doubt that will be explored shortly. I can’t help but think how shallow is our human mind to assume it is a mortal man or woman to find. I, myself nearly fell in the pit of it, but it just doesn’t fit.
      Hidden in her symbolism and romanticism is faith and honesty, not an endless line of men or a woman. She did probably love a few in her lifetime and she never married, but not because she was not asked. Otis Lord asked her to marry him after the death of his wife and she declined “You ask the crust, but that would doom the bread.” (Williams) and in Farr’s words
         “Dickinson wrote her ardent lover tellingly that in asking for her “crust”, he doomed                 the “bread”: that is, by inviting her to surrender her social self to him by
          moving to Salem and taking up a wife’s duties, he was requiring her to sacrifice
          her inner, artist’s self, the self that was her staff of life, the self that wrote poems.”                 (Farr 59) 
      To which I completely agree. Men were not her reason for existence. In her letters and her poetry, she finds strength in spiritually, not religion or romance. That, for her time was commendable. 
        A large part of her life was her religious doubt contradicted only by her spiritual substance. Her desire to believe and her love of life and nature, was greatly conflicted by guilt for feeling doubtful and often angry with God as she displays in her poem “The Master” (Melani) or more commonly referred to as “He Fumbles With your Spirit”. Her honesty with herself would almost appear to wreak havoc on her mind, yet she may have found a bit of peace in “No part of the mind is permanent. This startles the happy, but assists the sad” (Hurrelbrinck)
      It is said in an article that I searched for to support my inclinations “to understand Emily Dickinson, it is necessary to be familiar with the spiritual Calvinist tradition of belief in a psychological crisis of conversion” (Williams) Emily was raised by her father and mother as an Orthodox Calvinist. (Jalic)  For Emily and the Orthodox Calvinist, this conversion is often represented as wilderness or woods and one must walk through this or the madness of it if they are chosen to be saved. (Williams) In William’s words:
                         “Emily Dickinson was in rebellion, not against her ancestral religion,
                           not against Calvinism, but against the sterile and superficial faith of her
                           more immediate culture. If she revolted against the church, it was in the
                           name, not of Emerson, but of Christ. And her doing so put her in the
                           mainstream of the true Calvinist wilderness tradition.”
                         “Evidence indicates that she refused to conform not because she did
                           not believe, but because she believed too well. According to the one
                           good account of this incident, she did not reject Christ; she simply refused
                           to lie and claim a sincere desire for Christ when she knew the mystic
                           promise had not yet been made hers.” (Williams)
         The story goes that when she was a student at Mt Holyoke,
                          “Miss Lyon, during a time of religious interest in the school, asked all
                          those who wanted to be Christians to rise. The wording of the
                          request was not such as Emily could accede to and she remained
                          seated-the only one who did not rise. In relating the incident to me,
                          she said, “They thought it queer I didn’t rise”-adding with a
                          twinkle in her eye, “I thought a lie would be queerer.” (qtd in Williams)
     In addition to her Calvinist symbolism, she also referred to biblical symbolism regarding Peter and faith especially as in her letter to an unknown in Linscott’s book attached at the end of this piece. She often compares the “sea” to life and the “shore” to heaven or salvation as she is quoted using it in this excerpt from a letter to her childhood friend:
                        “The shore is safer, Abiah, but I love to buffet the sea-I can count the bitter
                         wrecks here in these pleasant waters, and hear the murmuring winds, but oh,
                         I love the danger! You are learning control and firmness. Christ Jesus will
                         love you more. I’m afraid he don’t love me any!” (qtd in Williams)
      Her faith, which she openly doubted, but came to grasp tightly, her well known love of flowers and symbolism which she captured in her art, became the center in which she found solace and acceptance of herself, her life and her salvation.  She would come to or perhaps always did, view the world and nature as God’s connection to her soul. When one looks at some of her poetry and letters with that light, it is clear she intertwines all of it. She sees, feels and writes through God’s world of nature. For Dickinson each part of nature is a form of and connection with, The Master. In many cases she expresses in her work a symbolic sentiment in which she desires to align with Him and yet on the other hand she also expresses her anger and doubt. Of which she feels guilty, as if she is the only one to have such feelings.  Closely tied together are her religious doubts and spiritual convictions, a paradox that would come to trouble her deeply. She loved life and yet, sometimes she hated it, as she displays in her poem “A Pit with Heaven Over It”.( ) Perhaps though she is one of the rare few willing to admit this to Him and others as well, especially during the religious time that she lived. She was remarkably strong, exhilarating, honest, courageous and pure.
     In the following poems and letters I will attempt to illustrate my points. For instance, in the poem, “I Tend My Flowers For Thee”, botanical symbolism and God is solidly represented.

I tend my flowers for thee -
Bright Absentee!
My Fuchsia’s Coral Seams      

Rip – while the Sower – dreams –
     “Thee” is classically God and He is not physically present. Fuchsia means confiding love (Victorian Bazaar) or humble love (Victorian Rituals), which she has for Him. She is admitting that she is also torn in that, but somehow she still grows seeds of dreams, likely being accepted by Him in Heaven.
Geraniums – tint – and spot -                  
Low Daisies – dot -               
My Cactus – splits her beard                
To show her throat –
     Geraniums meant true friend, stupidity or folly, daisies – innocence, and cactus – endurance. (Victorian Bazaar) She is saying she is sometimes stupid, yet we are all small innocents to Him and even though her endurance waivers and leaves her open to pain, she hopes He understands.
Carnations – tip their spice -                           
And Bees – pick up -
A Hyacinth – I hid -                                        

Puts out a Ruffled Head -
And odors fall
From flasks – so small -
You marvel how they held –

     Carnations represent pure and deep love (Victorian Bazaar) which she has and lifts up to Him. Yet she admits she lacks constancy, and then hides it, which is represented by the blue Hyacinth or perhaps she is sorry as in the purple Hyacinth. (The Floral Garden) Its “ruffled head” typically displayed on that flower, is quite possibly in reference to her boggled mind. Although, she thinks even He must marvel at her ability to be sane. In short, she is saying this flower has a ruffled head, like me, yet its scent is wonderful even if the bloom is small...”please, look at me like that.” As a side note, I’m wondering if bees are men, but I have not ventured into that.
Globe Roses – break their satin flake -           
Upon my Garden floor -
Yet – thou – not there -
I had as life they bore
No Crimson – more –

     Globe Roses from what I can find are probably Amaranth, (Globe Amaranth) which symbolizes immortality and unfading love, which was closely associated with Heaven at the time. (The Language of Flowers) She is saying many have died around her and gone to Heaven. She feels like He was not there for her and she’s glad He is not physically present. She’s ticked off and sulking that they bloom no more and to Him she was just a mere leaf they had.  
Thy flower – be gay -
Her Lord – away!
It ill becometh me -
I’ll dwell in Calyx – Gray -                            
How modestly – alway -
Thy Daisy -                                                   

Draped for thee!                                             
    She is saying she is happy that He is “away”. This also could quite possibly refer to a time when she had a breakdown of sorts and possibly saw Jesus who came and saved her from complete insanity (Williams) in which she experienced a conversion of faith often depicted as wildness as in the poem My Life Had Stood. (Williams) So theoretically, she could be referring to Him being with her…and went back to heaven.
     “Calyx -  gray” means she will just be the dead useless outer leaves on the flower (calyx) if He prefers, but still she is His Daisy, draped for Him…in white? I wonder…. One can’t help but smile at bit at her dramatic comparisons.
     The next poem “He Fumbles at Your Spirit” has occasionally been titled as “The Master” (Melani) by some sources and displays the anger referred to earlier. Indisputably, she speaks about God. Who on earth has not felt this way at one time or another? Alas though, I am unable to determine who has entitled it “The Master”.
     The remaining comparisons are in reference to her Master letters published in Johnson’s and Linscott’s books. In letter numbered 187, by Johnson, I suspect she believes she hears Jesus voice in her head and he has told her that He is ill from the lack of faith and honesty that plagues her world and hides under guises of Him. She then she goes on to say, “I would that all I love, should be weak no more. The violets are by my side”. Violets most often mean faithfulness or sincerity. (Farr 83)
      She then refers to the world as “God’s house”. Because this is not in direct reference to the recipient, as in “Your house”, it leads me to believe she is talking to Jesus and views Him as separate from God. In regard to the question He asks of her, perhaps she doubts her own responses to Him and worries he is ill with her as she is with her flowers.
     “Each Sabbath on the Sea” “Till we meet on shore”  She repeatedly refers to the “sea” appearing as “life” in her work, much like the Bible and the “shore” to be Heaven as noted in the letter to Abiah mentioned previously. She then closes with “How strong when weak to recollect, and easy, quite, to love.” And I believe she is saying if when we are weak, we remember Him, it makes life and love, quite easy and faith is restored.
     In my opinion, this letter is the weakest link and the hardest to grasp, but it is before her supposed breakdown and meeting with Him, and right about the time she begins to decline for a short time mentally. (Williams)  I don’t really find it that surprising that this is the case and still firmly believe she is speaking to Jesus. The allusion that these letters may have never been mailed adds to that. (Johnson 187)
     In this second letter dated about 1861, and numbered 233, it would appear as though she had her “break” in between these letters, approximately fall 1861, (Williams) and she had wished to die, but He would not let her. (Williams)  If this letter is added to the former noted poem entitled “My Life Had Stood”, it is a clear connection between them. I suspect she may have tried to commit suicide, but probably not as dramatic as with a gun referenced in the poem. She goes on to refer to “Chillon” which is coldness, possibly, a cold heart. Note she refers to Him as not coming in white as she expected asking what He would do if she came in white? She then asks him to visit, perhaps she means take her to heaven.
    All in all, the letters are a fascinating when read with the research contained in this paper. I shall spare further interpretations of my own and hope that reading the attached copies of all 4 letters and the poems will give some solid credence. 
     It is my belief that with the consideration of well documented botanical, natural, biblical symbolism which she clearly made reference to in her letters and poems; it is undisputable that Master is Jesus and that she referred to herself as a daisy to Him and only Him.
    A few months before Emily died she sent a short note to her cousins which stated only “Called Back” (Virtual Emily)  Ms. Dickinson died on May 15, 1886. (Virtual Emily) Emily had not desired a traditional funeral service and many of those attending described it as a beautiful spring day. Emily had a Lily upon the breast of her white dress and her sister pinned a small bouquet of violets on her collar. (Virtual Emily) It is also said that Vinny gave her some purple heliotrope to hold in her hands in which to give Judge Otis Lord upon her arrival. (Farr 60)
     I venture to say, she dressed in white, as if as daisy, for the day that He would call her home to Heaven, lest He forget her humble innocence upon her landing at the shore from the turbulent sea, we know as the world.

Works Cited
American Poems, “Emily Dickinson”, Gunna Bengtsson 2000-2005
          Retrieved February 2005 www.americanpoems.com/poets/emilydickinson/
Begibing, Robert J. & Grumbling, Owen, The Literature of Nature, Medford, NJ:
          Plexus Publishing, Inc., 1990
 “Emily Dickinson – Complete Poems – 1924”
          Retrieved February 2005 www.bartleby.com
Farr, Judith, Gardens of Emily Dickinson, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004
“Globe Amaranth” Retrieved February 2005
          http://www.driedflowersdirect.com/dried-flowers/gomphrena-2.htm
Gura, Phillip F.”A Cabinet of Curiosities: How I Met and Dated Miss Emily Dickinson”,
           2004, Retrieved February 2005  www.common-place.org/vol-04/no-02/gura
Hoppe, M. “The Language of Flowers”, 1997, Retrieved February 2005
           www.literary-liaisons.com/article008.html
Hurrelbrinck, Nancy, “Heroes of the Creative Spirit: Emily Dickinson”
          Wild Heart Journal, Retrieved February 2005
          www.wildheartjournal.com/Dickinson.pdf
Jalic LLC, “Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)” 2000-2004, Retrieved February 2005
          www.online-literature.com/dickinson
Johnson, Thomas H., Emily Dickinson Selected Letters, Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press
          of Harvard University Press, 1971
 “Language and Symbolism of Flowers”, site constructed by Gra Tim 2000, Retrieved
          February 2005  www.geocities.com/gratim98/langlist.htm
Linscott, Robert, N, Selected Poems and Letters of Emily Dickinson, Garden City, NJ:
          Double Day Press, 1959
Milani, Lilia “Emily Dickinson – God” modified Jan 24 2003, Retrieved February 2005
          http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/fumbles.html
Mondragon, Brenda, “Emily Elizabeth Dickinson (1830-1886)” 1997-2004
          Retrieved February 2005 www.neuroticpoets.com/dickinson
Myers, Michael, “Biography of Emily Dickinson” from Thinking and Writing About             
           Literature pgs 138-42, Retrieved February 2005
          www.vcu.edu/engweb/eng384/emilybio.htm
“Poet’s Corner” Retrieved February 2005 www.theotherpages.org/poems/dickin01.html
“The Floral Garden- The Language of Flowers and What They Mean” Retrieved February 2005    http://www.pioneerthinking.com/flowerlanguage.html
“The Language of Flowers” Reprinted from: Collier's Cyclopedia of Commercial and Social Information and Treasury of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge, compiled by Nugent Robinson. P.F. Collier, 1882  http://www.apocalypse.org/pub/u/hilda/flang.html
Williams, David R., “This Consciousness That is Aware”, Retrieved February 2005,
          http://mason.gmu.edu/~drwillia/dickinson.html
Victorian Bazaar, “The History and Language of Flowers”, Retrieved February 2005
          www.victorianbazaar.com/meanings.html
“Victorian Rituals – a Victorian Look into the Victorian Era” Retrieved February 2005
          www.home.kendra.com/Victorianrituals/Victor/flowers.htm 
 “Virtual Emily”, University of Massachusetts, 1996/1997, Retrieved February 2005
          www.unix.oit.umass.edu/~emilypg/1874.html
Visioneer Trading Corp, CA: “Language of Flowers”, Retrieved February 2005
          www.forever-bloom.com/site/619770/page/285214

Poems and Letters by Emily Dickinson
Attached are:
“I Tend My Flowers For Thee”
“My Life Had Stood a Loaded Gun”
“The Master” or “He Fumbles at your Spirit”
Master Letters 187, 233, 248
Letter 4 

The following poems mentioned maybe found online at these locations
So a Daisy Has Vanished
http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/emilydickinson/9980

 The Daisy Follows The Soft Sun
http://www.bartleby.com/113/4034.html

A Pit with Heaven Over it
http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/emilydickinson/11664

What Mystery Pervades a Well
http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/emilydickinson/11352

Additional Daisy Poems by Dickinson may be found online at American Poems

If It Had No Pencil
They Have Not Chosen Me…He said
I Keep My Pledge
In lands I Never Saw.. They Say
Great Caesar Condescend
The Color of Grave is Green
The Clover’s Simple Fame
If Those I Loved Were Lost
The Himmaleh Was Known to Stoop


And still…there are more…


I Tend My Flowers for Thee - 

I tend my flowers for thee - 
Bright Absentee! 
My Fuchsia's Coral Seams       

Rip - while the Sower - dreams - 


Geraniums - tint - and spot -                   
Low Daisies - dot -                
My Cactus - splits her beard                 
To show her throat -


Carnations - tip their spice -                            
And Bees - pick up - 
A Hyacinth - I hid -                                         

Puts out a Ruffled Head - 
And odors fall 
From flasks - so small - 
You marvel how they held -



Globe Roses - break their satin flake -            
Upon my Garden floor - 
Yet - thou - not there - 
I had as lief they bore 
No Crimson - more –



Thy flower - be gay - 
Her Lord - away! 
It ill becometh me - 
I'll dwell in Calyx - Gray -                             
How modestly - alway - 
Thy Daisy -                                                    

Draped for thee!    

(Emily Dickinson-Complete Poems-1924)

My Life had stood--a Loaded Gun-- 

My Life had stood--a Loaded Gun-- 
In Corners--till a Day 
The Owner passed--identified-- 
And carried Me away-- 
And now We roam in Sovereign Woods-- 
And now We hunt the Doe-- 
And every time I speak for Him-- 
The Mountains straight reply-- 
And do I smile, such cordial light 
Upon the Valley glow-- 
It is as a Vesuvian face 
Had let its pleasure through-- 
And when at Night--Our good Day done-- 
I guard My Master's Head-- 
'Tis better than the Eider-Duck's 
Deep Pillow--to have shared-- 
To foe of His--I'm deadly foe-- 
None stir the second time-- 
On whom I lay a Yellow Eye-- 
Or an emphatic Thumb-- 
Though I than He--may longer live 
He longer must--than I-- 
For I have but the power to kill, 
Without--the power to die-- 

(Poet’s Corner)

          The Master
 
He fumbles at your spirit 
        As players at the keys
Before they drop full music on;
       He stuns you by degrees, 


Prepares your brittle substance 
        For the ethereal blow,
By fainter hammers, further heard,
       Then nearer, then so slow 


Your breath has time to straighten,
       Your brain to bubble cool,--
Deals one imperial thunderbolt
       That scalps your naked soul. 


When winds take Forests in their Paws--
       The Universe is still. 


 (Melani)      
Picture
(Johnson, pg141)
Picture
(Johnson, pg 159)
Picture
(Johnson, pg 160)
Picture
(Johnson, pg 167)
Picture
(Johnson, pg 168)
See letter 4: (Linscott, pgs 328 & 329)